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Climate change Air - Sea interactions Internal climate variability
East Asian monsoon Climate Modeling Climate Chemistry interactions


▶ Climate Chemistry interactions, particularly “Short lived climate pollutants(SLCPs)” such as Sulfate aerosols, Black carbon etc. play a role to influence the weather and climate variability by changing radiative forcings (IPCC 2007).


▶ One is direct effect in which particles scatter and absorb the solar and terrestrial radiation. The other is an indirect effect in which they change  the microphysical and optical properties of cloud droplets responding that cloud condensation nuclei (Twomey, 1974). 

▶ According to recent studies, the short lived climate pollutants play a role in influencing the precipitation variability by changing the properties of the clouds, such as the cloud optical depth, the cloud droplet size, and the vertical distribution of the cloud droplets within the clouds

    (Hansen et al.,2007; Breon et al., 2002; Feingold et al., 2003; Tang et al., 2014).

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Figure  1. Schematic diagram showing the various radiative mechanisms associated with cloud effects that have been identified as significant in relation to aerosols.(Jasper Kirkby, 2009)

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Figure  2. Global-average radiative forcing (RF) estimates and ranges in 2005 for anthropogenic carbon dioxide(CO2), methane (CH4),  nitrousoxide (N2O) and other important agents and mechanisms(IPCC, 2007).