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  Previous studies suggest that it is reasonable to expect a direct relationship between sea surface temperature and deep convection cloud(SST-DCC), however, the relationship between the local SST and DCC over warm ocean SST> 27°C) is rather complex because of the influence of large-scale atmospheric dynamics that govern atmospheric convergence in the lower and middle troposphere and divergence aloft [Graham and Barnett, 1987; Waliser and Graham, 1993; Zhang, 1993; Meenu et al., 2012].


  Waliser et al. (1993) found that the characteristic of the relationship between SST and DCC is such that at temperature between 27 and 29°C, convection increases with increasing SST, but above 29°C(i.e. in the western tropical Pacific during boreal summer), the intensity of convection observed tends to decrease with increasing SST.


  That is, The SST-DCC correlation is highly positive in the central-to-eastern tropical Pacific, the core region of interannual variability associated with El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), On the other hand, the overall summer SST-DCC relationship has a negative correlation in the western tropical Pacific, this relationship experiences a significant interannual variation [R Wu and Kirtman, 2005; B Wu et al., 2009; Kumar et al., 2013]. 





   Graham, N., and T. Barnett(1987), Sea surface temperature, surface wind divergence, and convection over  tropical oceans, Science,238(4827), 657-659.

   Kumar, A., M. Chen, and W.Wang (2013), Understanding prediction skill of seasonal mean precipitation over the tropics, J. Clim., 26(15), 5674-5681.

  Meenu,S., K. Parameswaran, and K. Rajeev (2012), Role of sea surface temperature and wind convergence in regulating convection over the tropical Indian Ocean,J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 117.

   Waliser, D. E., and N. E.Graham (1993), Convective cloud systems and warmpool sea surface temperatures: Coupled interactions and selfregulation,J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 98(D7), 12881-12893.

   Wu, B., T. Zhou, and T. Li(2009), Contrast of Rainfall-SST Relationships in the Western North Pacific between the ENSO- Developing and ENSO-Decaying Summers*, J. Clim., 22(16),4398-4405.

  Wu,R., and B. P. Kirtman (2005), Roles of Indian and Pacific Ocean air–sea coupling in tropical atmospheric variability,  Clim. Dyn., 25(2-3),155-170.

  Zhang,C. (1993), Large-scale variability of atmospheric deep convection in relation to sea surface temperature in the tropics, J. Clim., 6(10), 1898-1913.